2001: Klempner's retreatment study in which 2/3 of the participants had not received prior treatment.
Mark Klempner’s 2001 long-term treatment study (90 days total) had a number of flaws and yet is upheld as "proof" that antibiotics are not beneficial to patients with "chronic Lyme".
There were never enough participants; he used invalid methods; he found "no DNA-positive patients" among the previously treated because he threw the DNA positive victims out of the study. Two-thirds of the patients had never been treated before; he never reported what primers he used; and no scientifically valid assessments of outcomes of this standard of care "study" were performed.
This became the essence of the IDSA "guidelines," whereas ILADS is not aware or does not care that OspA alone caused the same post-sepsis outcome that we call "Chronic Lyme."